This morning, I testified before the United State’s Senate HELP committee on the topic of college affordability. My written testimony can be found here. The text of my oral testimony follows, and I have added a q&a to respond to several questions I expect to receive. I welcome your feedback.
Good morning, Chairman Harkin, Senator Alexander, and Members of the Committee. Thank you all for this opportunity.
There’s never been a more important time to address the issue of college affordability. College is now the main road to a stable, secure life, and in this age of global knowledge markets, it is college-educated workers who will be the main driver of the U.S.’s prosperity. But the research evidence is clear: most families and students find the high cost of college attendance unbearable, and it’s affecting their choices about whether to attend college, where to go, and even whether or not to finish the degrees and certificates they start. As access to college becomes more difficult, public frustration is emerging and is spilling over towards other institutions and indeed into the streets.
Today Americans are experiencing annual declines in family income, yet net price of attending public colleges and universities continues to rise by almost $500 per year—that’s after taking aid into account. In the early 1970s, the maximum Pell Grant covered almost 80% of the costs of attending a public 4-year institution–today it covers barely 30%. With so little help, even low-income families are left with a bill of about $12,000 a year. For many, that’s the equivalent of up to 70% of their annual income. And so unsurprisingly, only about 1 in 10 find their way a college degree.
It hasn’t always been this way. The idea that students should bear most of the costs of college comes from a time when college cost much less and powerful people thought markets were saviors. Students today are just as responsible as ever, and just as willing to work for their education, but their task is plainly impossible. Covering that $12,000 in unmet need requires a student to work at least 35 hours a week, 52 weeks a year at the federal minimum wage. That arrangement is untenable, and moreover compromises their chances of completing their degrees.
Congress got it right in 1972 when it affirmed the societal goal of universal access to postsecondary education as a citizen’s right. Understanding that low tuition supplemented by the Pell grant was the most effective means of supporting access, it invested heavily in that key program.
But within a decade, the needs of students and families fell by the wayside, and our financial aid system has never recovered. Acting on the theory that higher education would become more “equitable” and efficient by operating on free market principles, policymakers began reducing the availability of grant aid, increasing the availability of loans, and de facto encouraging rising costs of attendance we see today.
This was a mistake. The decision to move away from a low-tuition approach to higher education, coupled with a refusal to regulate how institutions set prices has forced millions of students into debt. Loans are the new normal because of political choices, not because there are no alternatives. College today what the high school was a century ago, and yet students are being required to both work and borrow for it.
The consequences are evident—I’ve spent the last five years with a team of researchers on the ground in Wisconsin documenting the results. Let me tell you about Chloe, who I met when she enrolled in a Wisconsin technical college after finishing high school in a small, rural Wisconsin town of just 1,800 people. Chloe wanted to become a veterinary technician. Since she was the first person in her family to even try college, they had no savings. So she got the Pell and figured she was set. Not quite. As a last-ditch effort to ensure that she had enough resources for books, she’d sold her family’s horse, whom she’d raised on their farm as a teenager. It broke her heart, but she didn’t know what else to do. The horse was just a short-term fix: a month later, she found herself short of gas money. So she took a job at a fast food restaurant, but they couldn’t offer enough hours, so she found a second job at a fabric store, working one job in the morning and the other at night. She attended class in-between, getting home at midnight, and beginning her day again at 6 am. Working left little time for studying, but she feared loans, since she had seen credit card debt nearly destroy her mother’s finances. Running from job to school to job, she was exhausted, hungry, and stressed.
Six months later, I checked on Chloe, and found that college was done—she’d dropped out. The two-job-plus-school routine led her to fall asleep in her classes, and she’d earned a 1.9 GPA—putting her on academic probation. Her program of study didn’t allow for that, and kicked her out. Furious, confused, and unsure whom to talk to, Chloe bailed. Several weeks later, a bank began calling—the student loan she’d accepted during finals week, when she was trying to find another way forward, was now coming due. Unemployed, in debt, and disillusioned, Chloe was dodging their calls.
Making it this hard to pursue a college degree is weakening our great nation. We have to return to a demonstrably effective approach to putting college within reach of all Americans by providing a meaningful Pell Grant targeted to the neediest families, distributed early enough to help students prepare for college, and stripped of all unnecessary requirements. This should be matched by a difficult but necessary effort to drive down college costs by ending the ineffective tax credits flowing to wealthy families, stemming the tide of indebtedness by capping the interest rate on student loans, and using incentives to push states and institutions to return to a focus on providing high-quality postsecondary education, not glorified summer camps, that are accessible to all Americans. My written testimony contains specific recommendations aimed at accomplishing these goals.
My grandfather is here today because he’s a great example of what happens when Congress acts on behalf of all students. The GI Bill made it possible for him to graduate from NYU in 1950 – the first person in his family to earn a college degree. He went on to graduate and postgraduate education and is still practicing as a psychoanalyst doing work he loves, alongside my grandmother, a writer. He is my constant reminder of the wonderful lives Congress has helped the hard-working people of this nation lead by supporting their educational dreams. I know we can do better right now for students like Chloe and the millions like her. Help us find our way back to the original goals and intentions of financial aid, and we will all benefit.
If you dislike this proposal, then please read my written testimony, since it contains numerous ways to improve the current system.
1. It provides an acceptable level of financial risk for nearly all students.
2. It is simple and non-bureaucratic
3. The amount of financial aid needed is limited because of low tuition
4. The institutional appropriations accompanying low tuition provide large amounts of capital for investment in institutional capabilities to meet student demand, and financial aid expands that for those serving more low-income students.
5. It provides a government-assisted service that nearly every American hopes to access—it has strong popular demand.